Archive for the ‘Data mining’ Category
The way we interact with our digital devices has evolved over time: from specific commands in command line interfaces, to graphical user interfaces (GUIs), to touch-based interfaces. Virtual assistants (VAs) are the next step in this evolution, and they present new privacy challenges. These assistants, such as Siri (Apple), Alexa (Amazon), Cortana (Microsoft), or simply ‘Google’, are designed to respond to your spoken or written commands and take some action. Such commands let you place phone calls, order a car service, book a calendar appointment, play music or buy goods.
The use of these assistants is on the rise: a 2015 Gartner study found that 38 per cent of Americans had used a virtual assistant in 2015 and that two-thirds of customers in developed markets would use them daily in 2016. The most commonly-used VAs are voice-based, however, much of the presented information also applies to text-based VAs.
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Canadians’ mobile devices are filled with applications that collect personal information, including identifiers that are engrained into different parts of the devices. But what exactly are these identifiers, and how are they used?
An identifier is a piece of information (usually a sequence of characters) that’s used to uniquely identify a device, a user, or a set of behaviours taken on the device. Mobile identifiers constitute privacy-affecting technologies because they can be used to correlate an individual’s various activities while using a phone, tablet, or other connected device, and they support the linking of devices with actual persons.
Our mobile devices are filled with identifiers that uniquely label different components and behaviours. The radios and other physical hardware, operating systems, applications, and even web browsers are all rife with identifiers that can uniquely identify the device, the person using the device, or the behaviours of the user. And while these identifiers are typically meant to serve a useful purpose, the user is often unaware that these identifiers exist or how they’re collected and used. We will outline several of the most prominent identifiers associated with mobile devices and their significance for privacy.
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Children are more connected than ever and often miles ahead of their parents when it comes to navigating the Internet and mobile applications (apps).
They’re also among our most vulnerable demographic groups and, in their quest to access their favourite game or social network, they may be apt to give out personal information without any thought to the potential privacy ramifications.
For this reason, the Global Privacy Enforcement Network made Children’s Privacy the theme of its 3rd annual Privacy Sweep.
The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, along with 28 other privacy enforcement authorities across the country and around the globe, assessed the privacy communications and practices of some 1,494 websites and mobile apps.
The goal: to find out which of them collect personal information, what type of personal information they collect, whether protective controls exist to limit the collection and whether a simple means to delete account information exists.
By briefly interacting with the websites and apps, the exercise was meant to recreate the consumer experience – in this case, the experience of children under the age of 12. Our sweepers, which included a number of adult volunteers as well as nine children, ultimately sought to assess privacy controls based on four key indicators:
- Protective controls: Do protective controls exist and do they effectively limit the collection of personal data? (Ex. Prompts for parental involvement, warnings when leaving the site, pre-made avatars/usernames, moderated chats/message boards to prevent inadvertent sharing of personal information.) Are privacy communications tailored to children? (Ex. Simple language, large print, audio, animation.)
- Means to delete account information: Is there a simple means for deleting account information?
- Overall concerns about a child using the app/website: Overall, would I be comfortable with a child using this app/website?
In total, our Office examined 172 websites and mobile apps for both Android and iOS platforms. We focused on websites and apps that are targeted at or popular among children 12 and under.
Some 118 websites and apps appeared to be targeted directly at children, while 54 were considered popular among them. In other words, while designed for older audiences or audiences of all ages, children are said to be frequent users of these apps and websites.
The bulk of websites and apps swept were based in Canada and the United States. Our Sweep included a significant number of games and educational websites and apps, as well as leisure websites and apps hosted, for example, by museums or zoos. Traditional and social media apps and websites rounded out the list.
Before delving in, let’s be clear on a few points: Since apps and websites are constantly evolving, it’s best to think about our results as a snapshot in time. Also note that the Sweep was not a formal investigation. We did not seek to conclusively identify compliance issues or possible violations of privacy legislation. This was not an assessment of an app or website’s overall privacy practices, nor was it meant to provide an in-depth analysis of the design and development of the apps or websites examined.
Instead, we have compared and contrasted some of the web/app features and privacy practices that we found to be particularly kid-friendly, with those we felt could benefit from some “child-proofing.” We learned a lot and hope these concrete examples will help Canadians, as well as website and app developers, better understand our conclusions.
The moderated message/chat function:
Moderated message/chat functions ensure contributions are vetted before they are posted publicly. Items may be vetted for content but also for personal information as free-text portals can open the door to the inadvertent sharing of potentially sensitive details.
Family.ca, a site clearly targeted at children, indicated its message board feature was moderated. Our Sweepers put that claim to the test by attempting to post a message that included a full name, age and hometown. A day later, here’s the modified message that went public:
As you can see, the site even cropped the username to “victorg.” Nice catch Family.ca.
We attempted the same experiment with Lego.com. As you can see, the moderator informed us that it had rejected our post for privacy reasons. Awesome moderating decision master-builder Emmet!
Kudos to Family.ca and Lego.com which have shown how a little moderation can go a long way!
By contrast, Moviestar Planet is an example of a social networking app targeted specifically at kids that displays little self-control. While the app said it is moderated for content, children were free to post selfies with titles asking, for example, others to rate them “hot or not.” Not the sort of thing you might necessarily want out there on the Internet when you grow up. We won’t display those images to protect the privacy of the children, but you can also see how our sweeper was able to include a whole lot of personal information in the free-text chat function. Big no no! What’s stopping kids from entering their address, school or where they plan to be that afternoon?
Meanwhile, sweepers noticed that websites/apps that are popular among children may moderate for certain content but not to ensure that children aren’t sharing personal details about themselves online. The website for FIFA, soccer’s governing body and a site popular with soccer fans of all ages, for instance, moderates its site to ensure that there are no violations of the Terms of Service. But as you can see below, our sweeper was able to state his age and location. Therefore this reference to moderation has more to do with the appropriateness of the content . . . You know how partisan soccer fans can get!
The website’s Terms of Service also states that it is the responsibility of parents to supervise their children’s activities on the site and that appears to be as far as FIFA’s obligation goes towards moderating the content that children may be sharing. Certainly parents have a role to play in protecting children’s privacy while online, but seriously FIFA, you are not absolved from getting in the game. If you’re already moderating for content, why not make sure kids aren’t oversharing too? This serious foul deserves a red card.
Less is more:
Leave a little mystery! Profile displays do not have to give everything away.
GamezHero.com is an example of a targeted website that allows users to display a significant amount of personal information on their user profile including name, grade, gender, age and city. While the website said it does not collect from children under 13, it had no problem posting our 10-year-old’s information. Fortunately, there was no option to load a photo!
A similar interface on Family.ca, however, had limited options for sharing personal information. The photo was a preset graphic and messages were fixed text. In other words, kids could choose what to say from a list of phrases.
Things can get a little trickier with popular apps and websites. Even though many children use these sites, they are often not designed with the under 12 crowd in mind. Gurl.com is one such example. As you can see, the social platform geared at teen girls collected and posted our 10-year-old sweeper’s full name, date of birth, occupation and location.
There were also no warnings or mechanisms to prevent users from uploading photos or posting personal information on message boards, some of which broach some pretty sensitive topics such as depression, suicide and self-mutilation. Given the lack of protective controls, there’s no telling what children could post and who might see it, raising all sorts of questions about the potential for harm to one’s reputation and well-being.
For an otherwise pretty kid-friendly website, we found this next example worth mentioning. Santasvillage.ca offered kids an easy way to “get on Santa’s nice list” – by coughing up their full name and email address. In exchange, it promised to bombard subscribers with marketing materials. Not cool Santa, we’ll take the coal.
Selecting an image that will serve as your online identity doesn’t have to be personal. PBSkids.org is an example of a targeted website that asked our sweeper to choose from a pre-set list of icons.
As the Cookie Monster himself might say: Parents not like when Cookie gobble up sensitive personal information like photograph and share with udder monsters.
All in a name:
Just as children should be discouraged from using a personal photo online, so too should they be discouraged from using their real name.
Websites such as Harry Potter fan site, Pottermore.com, don’t give kids the option. Instead, our sweepers were encouraged to select a username from a pre-set list. Thanks for thinking about the privacy of your younger Hogwarts classmates, Harry!
Meanwhile, Classdojo.com, a classroom management site that connects teachers, students and their parents, got a gold star for advising sweepers in simple, child-friendly language not to use their real name. But unfortunately that gold star got yanked as there was no actual mechanism to prevent us from using it.
On the subject of parental control, there are some effective ways to limit the functionality of a website or app to protect privacy. A great way to do that is with a parental dashboard and here are a few examples that put parents in the privacy driver’s seat.
The first was Grimm’s Red Riding Hood, an app targeted at children that allowed parents to turn certain settings on and off, such as in app purchases and access to the store.
Another example is Battle.net, a popular game website designed for children over the age of 13, even though younger children are known to frequent it. As long as young users have provided a valid parental email address, parents can control settings through a fairly comprehensive dashboard.
On social networking site GeckoLife.com, parents of young children must register an account, to which they can add a child.
Parents could also monitor their child’s activities, including media uploads and connections with other users, however, the website collected a fair bit of personal information in the process.
Now just as the First Year kids at Hogwarts require parental permission for weekend trips to Hogsmeade, young Pottermore.com users need parental permission to activate their account. Of course that means deploying a summoning charm: Accio parental email address. Good job on involving mum and dad!
But this website didn’t just seek mum or dad’s email address, it also asked for the child’s first name, country, date of birth and which Harry Potter books and movies you’ve read or watched before sending the parental consent link via email. Is all that information really necessary, Harry?
The American Girl doll website had options to collect personal information through quizzes and sweepstakes, but to post a photo of your child with their favourite doll, parents had to provide a signed waiver.
These other apps clearly targeted directly at children have found some creative ways to keep wee ones out of adult sections of the site, though they do so assuming young users can’t read or follow very basic instructions! Consider making it a little tougher. Don’t forget, some wee ones are learning how to swipe a tablet screen before they can walk!
What seems so simple is often anything but. To put it mildly, not all delete functions are equal. From “no brainer” to “not an option,” here’s a look at our sliding scale when it comes to ease of deleting.
For some apps/websites, it was as easy as the click of a button. Take Quizlet.com for example. This educational website allows users to sign up and join study groups on a variety of topics. But when you’re done, you simply had to click the settings button in the top right corner, scroll down and hit delete.
Unfortunately many popular websites and apps that collect personal information had no apparent means for deleting account data, leading our sweepers to believe that their information would be out there in the ether in perpetuity.
It’s no surprise that kids like to click on shiny colourful things which many apps and websites have in spades. What’s not cool is when those shiny colourful things lead kids to places with different personal information collection practices or questionable content.
Redirection off-site often occurs through an ad or contest icon that sometimes appears to be part of the original site.
About a third of apps did not redirect users. Bravo! Meanwhile, 14 percent of them, including Barbie.com, at least provided a pop-up warning.
Others had more questionable redirection practices. For instance some websites/apps, including ones targeted directly at children, had ads for alcohol or dating websites that could lead users astray if clicked on. Some even had non-descript icons that, if clicked on, led sweepers to other sites that contained graphic and violent videos. Scary!
BONUS: Battle of the bands
Pop idols Justin Bieber, Taylor Swift and One Direction are all hugely popular among the under 12 crowd. But which fan site best bears that in mind when it comes to protecting the privacy of their youngest Beliebers, Swifties and Directioners?
Based on our indicators, here’s how these musical magnates stacked up.
Justinbiebermusic.com could collect a fan’s first name, email, date of birth, postal code and country. It too barred users under 13 but that measure could be similarly circumvented. The site also had links redirecting users to a variety of music and social media sites, including the pop star’s Facebook fan page. To “correct, update, amend, delete/remove” personal information, users are asked to send a letter via snail mail to an address in California, or to fill out an online form. It said users could also do it through the member information page, but no such page could be found.
Onedirectionmusic.com, meanwhile, did not collect any personal information directly on site, though users could be redirected to a number of social media and music sites. The One Direction store, however, did collect a variety of personal information.
We are certainly not trying to create any “Bad Blood,” despite Taylor Swift’s lyrics, but it seems as though all three sites could use some helicopter parenting! That said, according to our final indicator, OPC sweepers said they were most comfortable with the One Direction site which seemed to hit the higher privacy notes of the three. Too bad the band has broken up:( Or so we think!
While we recognize that age verification can be tough as crafty kids have found clever ways around such mechanisms, we commend One Direction for simply limiting collection. Remember, don’t collect if you don’t have to. We also observed other sites that recognized a user’s URL and barred them from going back to the site and simply entering a different age for a period of time in order to gain access to the site. Others automatically redirected young users to a children’s version of the site. While many protective controls are seldom fool proof, we encourage developers to be creative and to find new ways of using technology to protect our most vulnerable.
Final thoughts . . .
As you can see, sweepers here at the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada found many great examples of websites and mobiles apps that do not collect personal information whatsoever. We believe there are many effective ways to at least limit collection.
When it comes to protecting the privacy of children online, everybody has a role to play. Children themselves need to be educated about digital privacy issues and the perils of sharing personal information online. Teachers and parents can help instill this knowledge and should themselves be aware of what sites and apps their kids are using and what types of information they are being asked to hand over. Finally, developers should be mindful of who their users are and limit, if not eliminate, the collection of personal information from children through the use of innovative privacy protective controls.
Once we’ve finished sorting through our results, in conjunction with our provincial and international partners who are doing the same, we will determine any appropriate follow-up action.
As with last year’s Sweep, our follow-up activities could include reaching out to organizations to inform them of our findings and making suggestions for improvements. We also have the option to pursue enforcement action.
By the way, we wrote to the companies mentioned in the blog before posting this to share our concerns. Past experience has shown that education and outreach alone can often go a long way towards effecting positive change for privacy.
“Privacy is about much more than just solving technical issues of access control. That is not how people live and experience privacy. Privacy is in many ways about controlling the social situation.” – danah boyd
Through our Contributions Program, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner provided funding to the non-profit organization Mediasmarts for Young Canadians in a Wired World, a nation-wide survey of Canadians between the ages of 9 to 17 about their privacy habits. Adults typically argue that youth don’t take privacy seriously, but Mediasmarts’ study suggests young people do care about privacy, but see it differently from their parents or teachers. While adults may see privacy and security from the perspective of keeping young people safe from online dangers, many young people see privacy and security as a way to manage their reputations and identities online. So while both groups view online privacy as important, they do so for different reasons and use different methods to protect themselves.
One of the focuses of National Cybersecurity Awareness Month is promoting online safety.There are a lot of great resources and organizations out there to help with that (including on our website), but we thought we’d highlight some of the innovative and interesting ways researchers have found that young people have developed themselves to protect their privacy.
We want to highlight them for two reasons: to raise awareness among parents, teachers and other adults who influence kids that these practices do exist, and to demonstrate to adults that, contrary to popular opinion, young people actually care about their privacy and can go to great lengths to protect it.
White-walling: white-walling is the method of deleting a post after a specified period of time (generally when you post the next status update). By doing this, kids minimize the risk of someone dredging up information from the past and using it against the individual in the future.
The super-logoff: You just don’t log out of your Facebook account, you delete it. Since there are a few steps before you can remove a Facebook account completely, a super-logoff allows users to shut down their account when they aren’t using it. This prevents other people from searching for information, writing on a user’s wall, or tagging photos when a user is not online.
Cloaking messages & different platforms: According to Pew Internet Research, youth will often cloak their messages in order to mitigate having to “code switch” between their different audiences. Oftentimes, youth will use different platforms to segregate their audiences. For some, Facebook, for example, may contain more family whereas Instagram may be a place where users interact more with friends. They will also use references that will be understood by their friends as being a double-entendre but that their parents and teachers would take at face value. This allows them to communicate with their peers while still enjoying privacy from adult eyes.
Finally, teens are having fun with the ways their information is being used to target them for advertising. They are amused by throwing in tidbits of information and watching the result of targeted advertising. As danah boyd pointed out, “if you are a 15-year-old boy, nothing is funnier than using Gmail in a way that will trigger advertisers to send your friends diaper ads”. So while adults may fret about the ways we are trying to keep children safe online, kids these days are also showing us new and surprising ways to protect information online.
New and innovative methods of protecting personal data are constantly being introduced online. If you have heard of any inventive ways people are managing their privacy, be sure to leave them in the comments so we can highlight them in a future post.
Learn more about youth and online privacy by visiting the youth section of our website at – https://www.priv.gc.ca/youth-jeunes/index_e.asp
This week is Privacy Awareness Week (PAW) – a global effort, coordinated by members of the Asia Pacific Privacy Authorities (APPA), to raise awareness about the value of privacy and the importance of protecting it.
For PAW 2013, APPA created an infographic that illustrates how technology has changed the way we communicate, do business and store information, and how this has introduced new privacy risks as a result.
It is an issue that many are thinking about. According to OPC’s recent survey, Canadians are increasingly anxious about their privacy in the face of new technology, and 70 per cent of them feel they have less protection of their personal information than they did 10 years ago. The research also indicates that Canadians avoid downloading apps or using certain websites and services due to privacy concerns.
What can we do?
It is true that consumers expect protections when they use products and services, but it is important to also realize that consumers have an important role to play and need to take an active approach when it comes to protecting their personal information. The best thing anyone can do, when using technology to collect or store personal information, is to understand the privacy risks that come with that technology. And here are some resources to help with that task:
Mobile App: We use our mobile devices to store a goldmine of personal information. To learn more about how to protect the personal information on your mobile device, download the OPC’s free myPRIVACYapp.
Video: Privacy and Social Networks: Do you know what happens to your personal information once you post it on to social networking sites? Watch this video that OPC created to understand how social networking sites make money off of your personal information. It may cause you to ask yourself some tough questions the next time you update your information online.
Infographic: 10 tips for preventing identity theft: Anyone who has personal information is at risk of identity theft, and the risks are higher now that we use technology for so many purposes. And while it’s impossible to entirely eliminate the risk of becoming a victim, it is possible to reduce it. The OPC’s infographic details 10 things you can do to prevent yourself from becoming a target.
Introduction to Cloud Computing: When you store your photos online instead of on your home computer, or use webmail or a social networking site, you are using a “cloud computing” service. The OPC’s fact sheet explains the privacy implications of this.
For more information on the privacy risks that come with technology, and on how to protect yourself, visit the OPC’s page of fact sheets covering a range of issues and topics.
Waiting for his bus, a man watches as two people smash a glass window in an attempt to break into a building. He takes his phone out of his jacket pocket, points it towards the couple across the street, and snaps a photo. He posts it to Twitter. “Incredible,” he writes. “At the corner of Wellington and Fifth.”
Welcome to the world of citizen journalism, where the ubiquity of camera-enabled smartphones and the exploding popularity of social media has led to the rise of citizens watching, and reporting on, the actions of other citizens.
In June 2011, bystanders documented the scene as a riot broke out in downtown Vancouver following Game Seven of the Stanley Cup Finals. Tips were submitted by the public to the Vancouver police, which included over 1,000,000 photos and over 1,000 hours of video. These events provide a real-life scenario to study the emergence of citizen journalism and the potential for misuse of personal information that comes with it.
We commissioned two independent papers intended to further discussion on this topic. We asked Internet strategist Jesse Hirsh and lawyer Kent Glowinski to explore the technology and legal implications, and to consider possible legal protection for privacy within social media. These papers are now available on our website. We invite you to read them and let us know in the Comments section below what you think.
The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada (OPC) will be hosting its first annual Pathways to Privacy Research Symposium on May 2, 2012, in Ottawa!
The theme for this year’s event is Privacy for Everyone, and we will be discussing the results of research on emerging privacy issues among communities of interest. This year’s event was organized with the assistance of Industry Canada and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC).
Discussions will explore topics such as the changing landscape for youth, reaching diverse populations, cultural perspectives on privacy and frontiers of identification and surveillance among different populations.
This Symposium is a great opportunity to discover privacy-related research funded by the OPC’s Contributions Program and other funders, and will serve as a forum to bring together the people who do the research and those who apply it. Ultimately, we want to enable more people to use and benefit from the excellent privacy research that is being done across Canada. This event is also sure to be a great opportunity to share knowledge, grow partnerships and expand networking among researchers.
A detailed program for the event is available on our web site. If you are interested in participating, please contact Melissa Goncalves at firstname.lastname@example.org or 613-947-7097. Please note that limited audience seating will be available.
Many people would tend to think of Internet content as being free.
And indeed, we can spend seemingly endless hours reading online news articles and watching Youtube videos, all without handing over a penny.
But is there a cost?
One might say that depends on how much you value your privacy.
One thing beyond dispute however, is the fact that advertisers see immense value in the data trails we create when surfing the web.
Our IP number can reveal the city or region in which we live.
Our web traffic can provide a pretty strong sense of what we’re interested in, particularly if it shows we travel to the same sites regularly or even daily.
All this to say, once a site you visit provides you with a cookie, advertisers follow the trail of crumbs.
In the end, they target and tailor ads to your perceived interests which appear on various sites you visit.
Some may see benefits in this as they’d prefer being offered products and services that do indeed correspond to their interests.
Others may chafe at the thought of being ceaselessly monitored.
For anyone who wants to learn more about behavioural advertising, I invite you to click here to read our latest fact sheet.
And stay tuned. You’ll be hearing more from us on this in the weeks to come in the form of new information for organizations
There have been recent reports about security vulnerabilities arising from the reuse of passwords on different web sites. What about the reuse of usernames? Can identities established on multiple web sites be linked together based on the usernames, and what are the implications for privacy?
A recent research paper from INRIA in France described an experiment that looked at over 10 million usernames from popular services such as Google and eBay. In some of the tests, Google profiles that listed multiple accounts on different web services were used to establish “ground truth” about linked usernames.
The first finding was that the usernames chosen by people on the various websites tend to be very unique, with a probability of duplication being approximately one in one billion. This was true for a variety of web services, including a corporate network, Finnish web forums, and MySpace.
Second, the researchers found that when people used different usernames for different services, many of the usernames were constructed by making very small changes to existing usernames (e.g., sarah, sarah2).
Third, the study demonstrated that more than 50% of the usernames created for different services could be linked to one another because the username was identical, or very similar, and unique from other usernames.
The results are important for privacy protection. Although you may limit the amount of personal information you reveal when using a particular service, if your profile can be linked to other services than a detailed personal profile can be constructed from the various bits of partial information. This could lead to embarrassment if a supposedly anonymous profile is linked to a real-world identity. Spammers and fraudsters could also gather information from multiple services to target their messages or launch phishing and social engineering attacks.
In a demonstration of the risks involved, a quick examination of people using anonymous file sharing services (private BitTorrent trackers) found that 13 out of the 20 usernames examined could be linked to other web services (e.g., YouTube, eBay) and 4 usernames could be linked to real-world identities.
The lesson is similar to the warning about passwords – make sure that you choose a truly unique username (and password) for each service that you do not want linked together.